Delinquent and “Marginal” Personalities in Wartime: Reasons and
Consequences of Deviant Behaviour for Modern Society
Andrii Shaikan
and Valentina Shaikan
State University of Economics and Technology, 16 Medychna Str., Kryvyi Rih, 50005, Ukraine
Keywords: Sociopsychological Phenomena, Marginalism, Deviance and Delinquency, Anomie, Apathy, Antipathy,
Collaboration, Wartime, Reasons, Consequences, Challenges, Society.
Abstract: The democratic world community has witnessed an unheard-of consolidation and solidarity of the Ukrainian
nation at the beginning of the 21st century. The Orange Revolution, the Revolution of Dignity, Ukraine's
struggle for independence are heroic hours for the Ukrainian nation. Ukrainians want to live in a democratic
and civilized country. But there are forces that prevent this. Hence, the “hybrid war,” feeding” and the
activation of asocial phenomena are everything that both internally and externally interfere with the
sovereignty of Ukraine. The article provides the reasons for the emergence, comparison and modern
manifestations of such negative sociopsychological phenomena as marginalism, deviance and delinquency,
anomie, apathy, antipathy, collaboration, etc., their consequences and challenges for modern Ukraine.
The early 20s of the XXI century were for us,
Ukrainians, a world of political, economic, and
sociopsychological crises that have existed from the
beginning of the XXI century to the present: the
Orange Revolution in 2004-2005, as is well known;
the Revolution of Dignity in 2013-2014, which was
“interrupted” in February 2014 by a hybrid war: the
Russian-Ukrainian war in East Ukraine and Crimea.
At the beginning of the XXI century, the world saw
and heard the Renaissance and birth of the Ukrainian
nation, an “unheard consolidation and solidarization
of the nation.” The world community witnessed how
the capital of Ukraine, Kiev, drowned in “orange
grace” (Bryukhovetsky et al., 2005). Lina Kostenko
an honorary professor at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,
told the students and employees of the National
University “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,” who were the
first to join the all-Ukrainian Resistance Movement
on November 22, 2004 “You are now defending
Ukraine… (Bryukhovetsky et al., 2005)”. And these
words became ingrained in the history of the XХI
century Ukrainian Renaissance. On the evening of
December 2, 2004, during a live broadcast on
“Channel 5,” Vyacheslav Bryukhovetskiy, President
of the National University “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,”
invited the audience to bring exhibits to the future
“Orange Revolution Museum,” which may be called
the “Museum of Orange Evolution” or the “Museum
of Ukrainian Victory” (Bryukhovetsky et al., 2005).
Both then and now these are the nation's hours and
months of heroism. The beginning of a new era in
Ukrainian history continues. What brought millions
of Ukrainians together and connected them to the
modern democratic world community? The answer
was the same then as it is now: we want to live in a
democratic, prosperous, civilized Ukraine where the
government does not oppose the people, respects the
Constitution, laws, and morality, and does not tolerate
violations of citizens' rights (Bryukhovetsky et al.,
2005). We are Ukrainians, and as we desire peace and
stability, we protect our independence and liberty.
Meanwhile, the Russian-Ukrainian “hybrid war” has
been going on for 7 years, which, according to the
Ukrainian political expert Taras Berezovets, “hiding
behind words about the age-old friendship of the
Russian and Ukrainian peoples, systematically has
been preparing the dismemberment of Ukraine and
the seizure of its lands (Berezovets, 2016)”.
It is quite perilous for individuals who are not on
the front lines to develop an addiction to the
Shaikan, A. and Shaikan, V.
Delinquent and “Marginal” Personalities in Wartime: Reasons and Consequences of Deviant Behaviour for Moder n Society.
DOI: 10.5220/0011356900003350
In Proceedings of the 5th International Scientific Congress Society of Ambient Intelligence (ISC SAI 2022) - Sustainable Development and Global Climate Change, pages 327-334
ISBN: 978-989-758-600-2
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
conditions of war. Meanwhile, not only is the
peaceful Ukrainian populace suffering in the front-
line zone, but Ukrainian defenders are dying daily in
hospitals and on the front line. The horrors of “hybrid
war” were depicted in the novel “Airport: This Book
is About War That Should Never Have Happened,
About Heroes Who Had No Desire to Die, and About
Love That Never Dies,” which was based on true
events and written by Sergei Loiko, correspondent
and photographer of the Los Angeles Times (Loiko,
2015). Sergei Loiko wisely and succinctly described
the horror of this war, the valour of the Ukrainian
Airport garrison, in the following words: “I dedicate
this book to my small grandchildren, Zoya and Max.
Hopefully, when they grow up, events described in it
will be read as fantasy, not because “this can never
happen,” but because “this should never be…”
(Loiko, 2015). For decades, Bolshevik experiments
known as “contraselector elimination” and
“contraselector selection,” “schismagenesis,” and
prevalent ideological indoctrination contributed to
the extinction of the Ukrainian nation's gene pool
(carriers of “plus-variants,” or valuable
representatives of the nation), and an increase in
“minus-variants” or low-value elements. This
aggressive kind not only eliminate others, but also
produced a larger number of descendants (Bilokin,
2000). Serhii Bilokin authored “Masovyi teror yak
zasib derzhavnoho upravlinnia v SRSR (1917–1941
rr.)” (Bilokin, 2000). It contains documents and
materials attesting to the purposeful and deliberate
physical extermination of intellectuals, workers,
peasants and clergy who did not accept Bolshevism
and Soviet authority. Simultaneously, conditions
were created to support those who had recognized the
Soviet system, had adapted to it, and contributed to
the expansion of the bribery, bait, and collateral
systems, as well as the expansion of low-value
As is generally known, the Roman Empire
collapsed due to the spread of clientele, a large
segment of impoverished people who refused to work
and subsisted on the selling of their votes, begging
and servility to patricians. The events that unfolded in
the Soviet Empire were similar: deterioration as a
result of the expansion of low-value elements.
It would be prudent to recollect the interesting
content of an interview conducted on one of Ukraine's
major television channels on September 19, 2018, by
Roman Dodonov, a professor and Doctor of
Philosophy, who worked at Donetsk National
University till 2014. He stated that on the eve of the
Russian-Ukrainian war in 2014, pro-Ukrainian
students comprised 20%–25% of the student body at
Donetsk National University, while pro-Russian
students comprised 25% 30%. This ratio had moved
substantially by September 2018, owing to the
growing influence of Russian hybrid aggression on
the Donetsk region population's consciousness.
According to him, the Bolsheviks initiated
“schismagenesis” in Eastern Ukraine during the
1920s and 1930s - a process of religious schism and
the accumulation of negative events. And if a person
is deficient in a vital component for decades, it
becomes susceptible to manipulation. This is the
origin of separatist sentiments!
With the beginning of the war in eastern Ukraine,
thousands upon thousands of migrants fled to other
regions of the country. Numerous of them have
arrived at Kryvyi Rih. Individual immigrants should
not be identified because they include intellectuals,
businessmen and young people who started their own
business, began working in higher educational
institutions, obtained jobs in businesses and other
institutions, enrolled in universities, etc.
Simultaneously, since the outbreak of the Russian-
Ukrainian war in 2014, Kryvyi Rih has been
overwhelmed with delinquent and “marginal” people
from the Luhansk and Donetsk regions. Early on, it
became evident that they were not looking for work,
but for simple ways to earn their “bread and butter.”
They began crowding the Coordination Centre for
assistance, which was established at the Kryvyi Rih
Economic Institute of Kyiv National Economic
University named after Vadym Hetman shortly after
the war began (today it is the Center for Psychological
Assistance and Social Adaptation of the State
University of Economics and Technology). Only a
few were hired. The refusal to obtain a job was
explained by a low salary. Meanwhile, everyone was
accommodated in dormitories equipped with heating
and hot water for a reasonable monthly price. There
were also those who honestly explained their refusal
to work with large amounts of financial and material
help from various international and governmental
charitable organizations on a monthly basis. The
deftest among them quickly discovered the possibility
of receiving free meals and support from the city's and
districts' populations via the Coordination Center, the
Executive Committees of the City of Kryvyi Rih. All
manner of antisocial groups sprouted out like
mushrooms after the rain, engaged in vast money
“extraction” through various fraudulent schemes, due
to their possession of current computer technology
and the ability to “display” incorrect information.
Those lacking in these abilities pleaded for alms.
Psychologists from the Coordination Center
conducted explanation work with large families of
ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
displaced people in which parents were unable to
work and whose children were unable to attend
school or kindergarten. Numerous issues have
occurred among alcoholic and drug addicts.
Therefore, the authors were driven to create this
article by a situation that became acute in Ukraine in
2014, specifically with the outbreak of the hybrid
war. This war brought to light the “diseases” of
Ukrainian society that had existed for a long period of
time but went unnoticed by the former Soviet system
and were inherited by Ukraine in 1991, the year it
declared independence: marginalisation, deviant
behaviour, delinquency, anomie, apathy,
desocialization, and antipathy. As a result of the
Soviet legacy, Ukrainian society is highly
marganized. Such processes pose a threat to the
economy, society and the state.
In the 1990s of the ХХ century, Ukrainian society
was in a state of information immunity for the
Ukrainian nation. The Soviet (Bolshevik) industry of
ideological technology development (experiments)—
contraselector elimination, contraselector selection,
schismagenesis, mass Bolshevik terror (individual,
political, financial, and psychological), the “Great
Terror of 1937–1938,” for decades, had been
infecting the populace with information viruses,
resulting in a state of self-destruction for the
Ukrainian nation. Oksana Moroz describes how
“information affects the way Ukrainians think and
behave today,” why “Ukrainians require immunity
from information viruses,” and the modern virus-
creation industry (Moroz, 2020). Her 20 years of
professionalism in this area, her experience and her
candour are especially helpful in the context of an
aggressor's strong information assault in a hybrid war.
Oksana Moroz explains not only why the Ukrainian
nation's information immunity was destroyed, but
also discusses issues of information hygiene and
teaches how to spot and protect against the current
“industry of virus manufacturers.” Notable is her
conclusion about modern Ukraine, which has been in
a state of war for seven years: “We are one of the key
marketplaces where information conflicts are fought
using cutting-edge technologies (Moroz, 2020)”. The
20s of the ХХІ century were fateful for Ukraine. Our
victory at the front will also be contingent on the
stability of the Ukrainian population in the face of
information infections in the rear. According to the
article's authors, O. Moroz has identified segments of
modern Ukraine's population that “have a
considerable impact on the information environment
in Ukraine or on the adoption of collective decisions
(Moroz, 2020)”. It should be acknowledged that this
segmentation reflects the reality of Ukrainian society,
as three distinct groups of individuals have been
identified: The I type is “Individuals who have lost
their ability to resist viruses”; the II type is “Fighters
for immunity, fighters against viruses”; and the III
type “The most persistent are those who retain
immunity” (Moroz, 2020). The first category consists
of “addicted and tired” individuals (“prone to
suggestions and susceptible to all viruses in any
contact with the real world,” “completely passive
members of society” who support gaming,
esotericism, yoga, drugs, etc.);”Religious fanatics”
(all new and old religions, sects); and “Survivors”
(urban population: former teachers and librarians who
are hostages of the “Stockholm syndrome,” any
handout and kind word from the leaders of the
country stimulate them to fleeting love and
demonstration of devotion“); ”Villagers” (not
farmers; “analogue thinkers,” “believe everything
that sounds good,” “poorly informed and susceptible
to viruses”); “Pride” (or “band people,” “susceptible
to viruses”); “Ostap Benders” (“shuttle traders” -
“producers” - “visionaries from business”, “radicals”
and “nonconformists” - all have destroyed immunity)
(Moroz, 2020). The second type of Ukrainian
comprehends the digital era, is capable of critical
thinking, and its representatives are “the driving force
that controls the vector of the country's development,
business, sciences, etc.” (these are the elderly urban
intelligentsia, moms, senior businessmen,
adolescents, freelancers, and representatives of
creative professions possessing informational
immunity and are only mildly susceptible to the
majority of viruses) (Moroz, 2020). ІІІ type of
Ukrainians possess knowledge and the ability to filter
the information field, comprehending the scope and
consequences of any manipulative influences
(bloggers, startups, innovators, techies, IT specialists
and new intelligentsia-” the most prepared and
effective segment in the fight against viruses”)
(Moroz, 2020).
According to the authors of the article,
segmenting the current Ukrainian population in this
way enables us to comprehend the position and issues
of those who live on the cusp of cultures,
communities, or asocial or antisocial groups.
Psychological terminology elucidates the core of
negative phenomena. Thus, the Ukrainian
psychologist Lydia Orban-Lembryk refers to persons
who have found themselves outside their prior society
but were either unable to enter or were rejected by the
Delinquent and “Marginal” Personalities in Wartime: Reasons and Consequences of Deviant Behaviour for Modern Society
new group as having a “marginal personality”
(Orban-Lembrik, 2010). According to the same
psychologist, “deviant behaviour” refers to a pattern
of activities that deviates from generally recognized
standards of morality, law and culture in society
(Orban-Lembrik, 2010). Scientists Iryna Vashchenko
and Marianna Klyap define deviant behaviour as
activities that contradict and violate socially accepted
legal and moral standards (Vashchenko and Klyap,
2013). Individuals who are “totally passive” in
society are introverted and apathetic (Vashchenko
and Klyap, 2013), completely “involved in their own
issues and experiences” (Vashchenko and Klyap,
2013). These citizens are possibly the easiest
candidates for manipulators, as they are influenced by
manipulative subjects. The authors of this article
classify the І type of contemporary people as
dangerous to society, delinquent, desocial, anomical
and antipathic. And besides, such persons are mobile
and relatively young, innovative and proactive,
cunning and practical when the possibility to obtain a
variety of benefits quickly and easily presents itself.
These individuals are already a threat to society since
they isolate themselves from the mass of people and
develop asocial or antisocial informal groupings in
order to accomplish their objective (Orban-Lembrik,
2010). (in order to carry out various fraudulent
schemes in the Internet space, public places,
transportation, residential areas, etc.). Individuals that
are delinquent are criminals and their negative
behaviour in its severe manifestations constitutes a
criminal crime (Orban-Lembrik, 2010). Their
anomie, which are apathy and antipathy (a feeling of
malice and hostility) toward common social standards
and the surroundings, do not result from a lack of
knowledge of the law. Rather than that, psychologists
Iryna Vaschenko and Marianna Klyap claim, “by
awareness and rejection of it (Vashchenk and Klyap,
Human activities and motivations for behaviour
are impossible to understand without getting into the
subtleties of thought and the moral and psychological
nature of the individual. A person's social standing,
its choices and behaviour are all intimately related to
its personality traits, which can be used to evaluate
the individual's actions. The standard set of
biographical data is provided for the personality
characteristics. According to the authors,
understanding the specific motivations behind a
person's attitude requires identifying the factors that
influence on the ideas and behaviour of a marginal,
delinquent or dissocial person in general.
As it is known, a person's life path includes
several distinct phases: critical, active, creative. The
critical one falls into a phase of social regression,
degradation and stagnation, all of which have a
detrimental effect on an individual's fate. Modern
psychology proposes to emphasize the following
characteristics of the individual's socialization: the
socialization of a person who is in the stage of activity
during stable periods of society's development; the
socialization of a person who is in the stage of crisis
during stable periods of society's development; the
socialization of a person who is in the stage of ascent
but during unstable periods of society's development;
and the socialization of a person who is in the stage
of crisis during unstable periods of society's
development (Orban-Lembrik, 2010). The history of
Ukraine enables a comparison of Ukrainian society in
the ХХІ century with the 1920s and 1930s (or
“interwar era”) of the previous ХХ century, as well as
the years of the Second World War. There is no doubt
that a part of the ХХ century population went through
an unstable era of development. This is demonstrated
by repressions and political processes directed against
“enemies of the people,” the ongoing struggle against
“extremes”—manifestations of “bourgeois
nationalism” directed against Ukrainian intellectuals
and ideological persecution and punishment known
as” khvylovyzm,” “volobuevism,” and “shumskism.”
Ukrainian society has experienced multiple “purges,”
the Holodomors in 1921–1922 and 1932–1933,
collectivization, expropriation, resettlement and
Sovietization of Western Ukrainian territories. The
majority of citizens were socialized during life crises
and also during unstable periods of society's growth,
when an individual's value orientations and social
behaviour shifted in response to environmental
Volodymyr Vyatrovich published the declassified
KGB archives kept in Ukraine's Security Service
Archives in 2014 (Vyatrovich, 2014). It is noteworthy
that, according to the authors, “Case No. 67 436 on
the charges of Kh.I. Sigala, aka K.M. Sigolenko, and
aka K.I. Kovalsky.” The historian V. Vyatrovich
presents this case under the title “Haim Sigal's
horrible disguise” (Vyatrovich, 2014). The case
demonstrates the tough life path of a person who, in a
short period of time - from the autumn of 1939 to
1951” - had changed not only his surname, but also
himself” due to a variety of events. Haim Sigal's fate
is incredibly harsh. He was born in 1904, is a Jew by
nationality, and is a native of the village of
Leshchatov in the Lviv region. He was deprived of a
full childhood due to the First World War. Following
his father's death, he and his older brother Enoch were
compelled to work in order to support a big family
(the family had eight children). Chaim did not
ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
abandon his urge to study; he graduated from the
teacher's gymnasium in 1928 and began teaching at a
private Jewish school. Despite his challenging
upbringing, he possessed positive identifying traits:
diligence, responsibility for his younger brothers and
sisters, and a passion to study, all of which he
demonstrated via his work and studies.
Simultaneously, following his father's death, he
became aware of his own limited options as a result
of his nationality, status and tiny stature, which
progressively generated in him complexes of
inferiority, alienation, isolation, some sort of
secondary importance and conformism. He was
already 35 years old during the outbreak of World
War II and the establishment of Soviet regime in
Western Ukraine. The impressions gained from
familiarity with the situation of Haim Segal are
unambiguous: the war ruined his life, as the lives of
millions of other individuals living in extreme
conditions. With the Red Army's entry and the
creation of Soviet regime, genuine professional
options opened for Haim. He started his career as a
police officer, then as an assistant detective in the city
of Lviv, before becoming chief of staff of the 8th
battalion of the 1st partisan regiment of the NKVD
soldiers at the outbreak of World War II (Vyatrovich,
2014). And then there's Hitler's incarceration,
collaboration with the enemy and escape for survival.
Cooperation as a translator with the Nazi occupiers.
Natural inventiveness and the ability to establish
rapport swiftly had always aided him. Then he was a
member of Ukraine's insurgent army, “Poliska sich.”
For a brief period between June and September 1941,
Khaim (aka Kirill) underwent such transformations.
“Taras Bulba” - Borovets officially dissolved
“Poliska sich.” in November 1941. Lieutenant Kirill
(Khaim) Sigolenko (Sigal) convenes the senior
council meeting. Once again, collaboration with the
adversary. There is the evidence in the criminal case
that Chaim rescued two Jewish women from
execution, Vera Reyblat, who worked for the
Gaidamak Newspaper and her sister. Simultaneously,
evidences point to Haim Segal's involvement mass
killings of the Jewish populace in winter and spring
1942. According to the criminal case, the Nazis
initiated the “ultimate solution to the Jewish
question” in early 1942. Haim Sigal, who had already
been appointed commandant of the district police in
Dubrovitsa in April 1942, chose to demonstrate his
allegiance to the Nazi invaders through his own anti-
Semitism: he personally participated in the
annihilation of his fellow tribesmen (Vyatrovich,
2014). He served in the gendarmerie near Bilostok
before joining the German security service as the
chief of security and deputy commandant of
Starosetsy town. In spring of 1945, Chaim's primary
concern was no longer his career, but his survival. He
is converted as Karl Kowalski, a Polish. Haim, a
previously peaceful and discreet teacher, now poses
as an official employee of the Soviet military
administration's navy office in Berlin, transforming
himself into a smuggler, an underground currency
dealer, a wealthy burgher and a ransom kidnap. Only
in 1951-1952 he was subjected to a criminal
investigation for his crimes: it was established that he
personally participated in the killings of Jewish
children and atrocities committed during detainee
questioning, ensured the Dubrovitsky ghetto's
protection, compelled its inhabitants to labour for
him, gather gold, pledging to transmit it to the
Germans in exchange for a guarantee of their safety.
On June 19, 1952, the court decided that capital
penalty was to be carried out. The tragic demise of a
traitor-collaborator: the former teacher, the former
Soviet policeman, the former chief of staff of the 8th
battalion of the 1st partisan regiment of the NKVD
troops, as well as the German translator and then the
partisan of “Poliska sich”, the ataman “Taras Bulba”-
Borovets, the cornet, the lieutenant, the propagandist,
and again Hitler's interpreter, the police officer, the
gendarme, the commandant and the executioner, the
speculator and the smuggler. As you can see, he was
able to “fight” among Red Army soldiers, Soviet
partisans, and Ukrainian nationalist soldiers, but
mostly with Nazi invaders. This man, in pursuit of his
own ambitious career aspirations, even abandoned
parental and marital responsibilities and purposefully
chose the path of a timeserver, traitor and
executioner. Social phenomena possess a
psychological component. General psychology
methods enable us to comprehend population social
behaviour, mental processes and the fundamental
principles governing human activity and behaviour
during turbulent eras of human social existence
(Rubinstein, 2002). The psychology of motivation
investigates the incentive variables that can sway
human behaviour in any direction under
circumstances. According to S. Zanyuk, a
psychologist, personal and situational elements both
determine and provoke a person's behaviour (Zanyuk,
2002). Any human behaviour can be motivated by a
variety of factors: self-realization, self-affirmation,
material incentives, social motivations or
identification with an idol, for example. According to
the motivational-active criterion, all individuals are
classified as highly motivated (those who have a high
level of success motivation) or low-motivated (those
who have a low level of achievement motivation and
Delinquent and “Marginal” Personalities in Wartime: Reasons and Consequences of Deviant Behaviour for Modern Society
are dominated by the need to avoid failure) (Zanyuk,
Psychosocial theories of personality also enable
us to comprehend the root causes of such occurrences
as collaboration (or collaboration with an adversary),
assisting and so on. According to psychoanalytic
theory, personality is a complex structural
phenomenon that integrates both the individual and
collective unconsciousness and can actively influence
an individual's behaviour (Orban-Lembrik, 2010). In
the setting of a person's crisis or conflict in society,
positive desires and ideals are transformed into
negative ones, and this process becomes a typical
feature in the society, eventually leading to personal
assosialization. Thus, during the interwar period on
the territory of the USSR, during the repressions,
some segments of the people reported on their
neighbours, work colleagues, etc. in order to avoid
arrest. During the war under Nazi occupation, some
chose the route of cooperation with the enemy in
order to survive. Additionally, there were others who
switched voluntarily from a German institution to
punitive bodies - SD units that massacred people.
These individuals were humiliated by the occupation
regime's brutality. Psychologists claim that the
absence of a relationship between the “actual I” and
the “ideal I” frequently results in conflicts between an
individual and society (Orban-Lembrik, 2010).
Human behaviour is determined by the hierarchical
pattern of needs. Psychologists claim that the greatest
level needs - self-esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, and
self-realization - do not emerge until the lower level
needs - physiological security, emotional contact and
so on - are satisfied. Lack of chance to meet all human
wants, interests and values in some form results in
regression and decline, and if living conditions
conflict with the fulfilment of a life vocation, internal
conflict and even neurosis are likely (Orban-Lembrik,
2010; Zanyuk, 2002).
The doctrine of logotherapy or so-called
psychological theory of meaning, developed by
Austrian psychiatrist and psychologist Viktor Frankl,
aids in understanding the causes of antisocial
behaviour among a certain segment of the population
during World War II, as well as how others avoided
it (Shvachko, 2002). During World War II, from 1942
to 1945, he was imprisoned in Nazi concentration
camps yet remained spiritually undefeated. His theory
was put to the ultimate test in the Nazi concentration
camp Auschwitz. Three years of struggle for survival
in the concentration camp taught the scientist the
primary motivations for human existence: according
to his observations, those who have a strong spirit and
represent the purpose of their own lives have the best
chances to survive under inhuman conditions, those
who can create their own inner world of spiritual
freedom and inner wealth and return to it with the help
of this “world” (Frankl, 2004). As the scientist
testified, the ability to maintain inner spiritual life
even under harsh situations, when it appeared
impossible to exist, provided him with a more
“intense approach to perceive the beauty of nature or
art” (Frankl, 2004). According to him, the existential
vacuum that a person finds himself in at a critical time
can be filled by internal freedom, without which no
person exists, as well as internal strength that enables
one to survive suffering, exorbitant work (feat), and
experience (firstly, love for relatives), all of which
together give a person the meaning of the struggle for
life; a person who loses the meaning of life—loses the
meaning of resistance, inner strength and quickly
self-destructs (Frankl, 2004).
Numerous examples throughout history
demonstrate the coexistence of virtue and evil in
every person and community. The study of
motivational contradictions in individual acts is
necessary and crucial for comprehending asocial
phenomena in society. The stability or instability of
society's growth has an impact on the individual
qualities of human development. Economic and
political crises create multivariate lines of behaviour
of individuals in society by recalibrating their social
reaction and thinking processes (Orban-Lembrik,
2010). An individual selects a course of action that is
consistent with his or her personal goals and ideals,
but being bound by the social, political, religious,
cultural, and ideological circumstances of life. The
values a person prefers is determined by its emotional
and mental states, which comprise his desires,
emotions, aspirations, experiences, emotions, will,
etc. According to psychologists, the will is the most
important factor in a person's life because it
predetermines a person's actions and deeds through
emotions and inclinations. To comprehend the roots
of asocial phenomena, the work of American
philosopher and psychologist W. James (Shvachko,
2002), who presented a formula for self-esteem, is
invaluable. The coefficient of self-esteem of an
individual will improve as the numerator, the
indicator of achievement, grows and as the
denominator, the level of requirements, drops. That
is, when a person rejects higher demands or value
orientations in specific circumstances of his life, it
enjoys psychological and bodily relief as a result of
adjusting to the external environment and living
situations. When a society is in crisis, when the
populace is faced with the question of how to
continue living, people cannot remain indifferent for
ISC SAI 2022 - V International Scientific Congress SOCIETY OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE
an extended period of time. Eventually, the individual
must decide with whom it is. As a result, one either
perceives the new order, becomes opposed to it, or
attempts to reach a compromise. It is entirely
dependent on the individual's spiritual culture and
value orientations. During wars and revolutions, a
shift in value attitudes occurs, a fight between
positive and negative identities that might culminate
in a person's betrayal, a criminal act, or an interior
spiritual catastrophe. According to psychologist B. -
F. Skinner (Orban-Lembrik, 2010), asocial human
activity is capable of causing “operant” reflexes
produced automatically by the body in response to
changes in the external environment. Punishment or
reward can amplify or dampen these human
emotions. Such propaganda manipulation techniques
were aggressively used by the Nazi invaders. Such
propaganda manipulation techniques were
aggressively used by the Nazi invaders. Asocial
behaviours strewn throughout Ukrainian society,
incited enmity between nations and, conversely,
aided the occupiers in controlling the Ukrainian
population. According to Hitler's instructions, it was
intended to close local hospitals, to halt the fight
against typhus and tuberculosis, and to promote
immorality and hooliganism among the populace, if
this did not hurt the Germans (Kosyk, 1993; Lebed,
1993). Simultaneously, collaboration with the
occupiers guaranteed certain liberties and pecuniary
rewards to the populace. Individuals who are
influenced by the ideas or actions of others are, in
some way, seeking a state or solution that is beneficial
to them. This adaptation has unfavourable
consequences. Conformism is defined as the passive
and adaptive acceptance of group standards of
behaviour, the unconditional acceptance of current
orders and norms, regulations, and the unquestioning
admiration of authority and any force. According to
psychologist O. Shvachka (Shvachko, 2002),
conformism emerges in one form or another under a
totalitarian regime with its egoistic priorities. This
phenomenon occurs as a result of an individual's fear
of falling behind the rest of society. This behaviour
was characteristic of the majority of the Soviet
society population during the interwar period and
throughout the war, prompting some people to
collaborate with the Nazis during the occupation
Inadequacy as a source of human behaviour
deviation and of antisocial conduct. An inadequate
personality distorts others' perceptions of itself,
impairing people's capacity to normalize connections
with it. Another source of delinquents, whose
negative behaviour culminates in criminal acts, are
the previously mentioned “marginals” - individuals
torn from their social structures and characterised by
internal social instability, a sense of loneliness, a
proclivity for immoral behaviour, and an ease with
which they come into conflict with the environment.
This quarrel has the potential to escalate into a
specific crime. Psychologists say that delinquent
persons who exhibit asocial behaviour are incapable
of adapting to social surroundings. There is a reason
for a person's distorted or inadequately developed
concept of itself, social ties and interpersonal contacts
to be warped or insufficiently developed. According
to psychologists, socio-psychological maladjustment
is a breach of the individual's active adaptation to the
conditions of the social environment that occurs as a
result of bodily and mental disorders, stress and
emotional experiences and, as a result, conflicts
(Orban-Lembrik, 2010). Socio-psychological
personality maladjustment can take non-pathological
or pathological forms (manifestations of violence,
sadness, etc.). Thousands of criminals were released
from Soviet jails on the eve of World War II, but they
were unable to swiftly adapt to society. We know
from archival sources that they acclimated to the
“new government” during the Nazi occupation
regime. The invaders appointed prefects, police
officers who participated in punitive actions against
the populace and partisans from this contingent.
Alienation theory, developed by E. Fromm, a
German-American psychologist and sociologist, also
explains the situation of a person who has lost contact
with society. He refers to this phenomenon as
“alienation” or “negative liberty” (Orban-Lembrik,
2010). Such “liberty” oppresses an individual because
it is unable to interact with society and is therefore
left alone with its issues. Individual “alienation”
occurs not just in expressions of conformism, but also
in sadism, aggressiveness, etc. This was evident in the
conduct of traitor collaborators who assisted the
Nazis in their punishing operations.
The socialization of an individual in society in the
context of negative sociopsychological and ethical
issues is a complicated and perplexing process.
Marginalism, deviant behavior, delinquency, anomie,
apathy, desocialization, aversion, and, eventually,
cooperation and collaboration of a segment of the
population are social, psychological and ethical
realities in society during times of crisis, war,
revolution, etc. These phenomena facilitated and
continue to facilitate the establishment of various
Delinquent and “Marginal” Personalities in Wartime: Reasons and Consequences of Deviant Behaviour for Modern Society
forms of collaboration and relations with Russia's
occupiers in Eastern Ukraine and Crimea. As it can
be seen, the Soviet legacy is effective because it left
behind the Ukrainian society that is highly
marganized. Asocial phenomena emerge are
triggered, activated, promoted and spread as a result
of the occupants' deliberate activation of universal
processes of social and psychological phenomena
such as imitation, suggestion, persuasion, infection
and intimidation. These sociopsychological and
moral phenomena are based on a broader integrative
psychological phenomenon known as the
motivational sphere. Inadequate opportunity to
satisfy a person's wants, interests, and values
gradually results in crisis, regression and
deterioration for both the person and the society. The
variations in society along the “stability-instability”
axis, as well as the individual qualities of people,
result in the development of diverse social behaviour
directions. The system of personal values evolves
throughout unstable periods of the development of
society and psychosocial catastrophes. In the
meantime, there is a fierce conflict between positive
and negative identities, which, under certain
circumstances, might result in an aberrant path of
personality development and illegal collaboration
with the adversary. These processes and phenomena
have a critical impact on the ability of society and the
economy to sustainable development.
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